Thursday, December 5, 2019
Question: Discuss about theEnvironmental Policy Development. Answer: The central point of the paper is to understand the contrary views on the gradual process of various developments of policies for better environment. The subject of policy cycle is huge and it provides a vast challenge to the policy makers in order to save the environment from its current situation (Bridgman and Davis 2003). The focus of the article is think beyond in order to illustrate the fundamental limit of the approach to the policy cycle. The most interesting part of these articles is the roles and responsibilities of policy maker for providing a perfect meaningful and succinct guidance. Yes, I do agree with author of these articles of policy cycles as all of these articles are closely related to make sense of various policy processes without creating any kind of confusion. These articles explain that there is no availability of exact policy model for the development (Althaus et al. 2007). Even a fixed policy model cannot claim the universal application, this point is somewhat surprising as in todays technological world, and the policy makers are unable to make an established policy for overall improvement. The major questions the article raise in mind are what are the potential barriers that preventing the policy maker to create affixed policy? What are the choices of the management of policy makers after taking relevant decisions? I need further information on the responsibilities of the government in the process of policymaking. References Althaus, C., Bridgman, P. and Davis, G. 2007. The Australian Policy Handbook, Crows Nest NSW, Allen Unwin (Ch 3) Bridgman, P. and G. Davis 2003. What Use is a Policy Cycle? Plenty, if the Aim is Clear. Australian Journal of Public Administration, 62, 98-102.
Thursday, November 28, 2019
Dangerous Business Response Essay Dangerous Business Response I thought that the dangerous business video effectively spotlighted the varying approaches different companies use with regard to workplace and employee safety, and general ethical practices and dealings. I found the occurrences at McWane Incorporation to be quite fascinating, as I had no idea that some companyÃ¢â¬â¢s workplace conditions were still so horrible in the United States today. I found it amazing that McWane was basically able to circumvent the law by barely meeting necessary standards, and by barely doing what they need to do to avoid heavy liabilities. Practices like those of McwaneÃ¢â¬â¢s bring in to question whether sacrificing basic human safety in the way that Mcwane does is actually profitable. Well it is clear that for the economy as a whole that McwaneÃ¢â¬â¢s, as well as there subsidiaries such as Tyler PipeÃ¢â¬â¢s actions are quite detrimental. While their practices might help improve their bottom line, along they way they have destroyed lives and families, ultimately hurting the work force. While the practices and decision-making of McWane Incorporation are highly unethical, whether or not they should be allowed to do what they are doing is an entirely different question. We will write a custom essay sample on Dangerous Business Response specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Dangerous Business Response specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Dangerous Business Response specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer I understand the approach taken by McWane executives: do whatever is necessary to turn a profit. When you think about the risks and competition associated with the business world today, this ideology and reasoning seems to be sound, however this does not take into consideration the long term and far reaching effects of neglecting the environment and basic human safety needs. Business managers today are under a lot of pressure to make their companies profitable by any means necessary, which is evident by McwaneÃ¢â¬â¢s Discipline Management Practices. On the whole my main issue with McWane is that I believe that they could change their business practices and move to become a more ethically sound business, and still remain just as profitable. I would not have as much of an issue with their approach if it really truly was the most efficient and profitable way to run a business. However, when you look at the practices and successes of the American Cast Iron Pipe Company, is it very clear that this is not the case. The American Cast Iron Pipe Co. uns business in the same industry as Tyler Pipe, and uses similar equipment and machinery for many of their operations. The difference between the two companies is that Cast Iron Pipe Co. is able to run a profitable business and at the same time maintain a safe workplace and clean environmental record. Cast Iron also does not engage in some of the unethical practices of Tyler such as targeting ex-cons for employment to help offset turnover issues, or sending injured workers to incompetent med ical clinics. I feel like doing things such as improving the workplace and treating the environment better attract more workers, and also happier workers. Because more people want to work for ethical businesses like Cast Iron that run their business based on the Golden Rule, those companies have access to better employees. Also, those employees working for a company like Cast Iron Pipe are likely to do a better job because they are happier and have a sense of security. All in all Ã¢â¬Å"Dangerous BusinessÃ¢â¬ shows that cutting back on employee and workplace safety spending, and trying to save money by meeting the bare minimum environmental standards does not ultimately help a company, as these decisions have far reaching internal effects. Plain and simple unhappy employees who feel unsafe at work are not going to work up to their maximum potential because they are unhappy. I think that there should be stricter standards and penalties for unethical business practices, and I think there needs to be more enforcement of the laws.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
15 Hilarious Pranks to Pull on College Friends Oh Lord, there are so many hilarious pranks to pull on college friends. Listen, if youÃ¢â¬â¢re looking for prank ideas and donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to get sucked into hours of prank videos, this article is for you. Here are 15 that you can always count on, as long as they go off without a hitch and are executed safely. #1 Tape the Contents of Their Trash to Their Door Make a statement. You can find out a fair amount about a person by exposing their trash. Go into their room, especially if theyÃ¢â¬â¢re super-messy and tape everything (within reason of course) thatÃ¢â¬â¢s trash onto their door and let them know itÃ¢â¬â¢s time to clean up! #2 Fill Their Dorm Room with Popcorn This is a cheap and easy trick. Making it goes really quick and you can easily fill an entire dorm room with only about 8 or 9 bags which cost maybe $2 each. Transporting it is easy as wellÃ¢â¬ ¦.industrial-sized trash bags. The trick is that ideally you should be able to leave the room through the window so you can make the popcorn 5 feet tall (or more)! #3 Put a Dead Thing in Their Cereal No, not a real dead thing, but a realistic looking one. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not over-the-top but it works (especially on girls) you could either big a furry spider in there of substantial size, a small snake, or perhaps even a rate. #4 Change Their Computer Log-In Sounds This is truly legendary. If you can get their log in information, or get into the computer while theyÃ¢â¬â¢re away change the log-in sound to something crazy. Anything from a full-on gun fight to a ground shaking explosion with screams of terror. Then, turn their sound system up super-loud (not so loud you blow speakers) so that the next time they expect to hear some pleasant sound suddenly theyÃ¢â¬â¢re under siege and could potential crap themselves. #5 The Almighty Soda Bomb Mentos are pretty old. But, what you do is put a tiny hole through one, latch it onto a string and then drop it into a big bottle of soda and close the cap tightly. Simply put it back in the fridge and wait. The next person who opens that will be bombarded with fizz and syrup unlike anything theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve ever experienced before. #6 Butter Tiles Again, cheap and easy but effective. If you have any tiles, butter them up and then wait because regardless of what kind cleats someone may be wearing theyÃ¢â¬â¢re going to end up on their butt. Really good for roommates or college friends with hard wood floors. # 7 Completely Cover them in Flour While they Sleep DonÃ¢â¬â¢t pour it on so they wake up. No, instead grab like 10 bags of flour (thatÃ¢â¬â¢s a pretty hefty clean up job remember) and slowly stealth fully cover your college buddy while they sleep. Flour is actually quite comfortable. #8 Early Alarm + Flattened Tires TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re the type of person that jetÃ¢â¬â¢s out of bed last minute, scrambles onto their bikes and heads off to class. Okay, so set the alarm an hour ahead of schedule (and any other clocks in the room along with it) and then flatten the tires so they think theyÃ¢â¬â¢re going to be late. #9 Put a Fake Person In their Bed Get a realistic looking mannequin and sneak them into bed next to someone. Making the mannequinÃ¢â¬â¢s face scary is a bonus. They could wake up in the night screaming, or they could wake up in the morning to an unexpected stranger. Hilarious. #10 Opposite Side Switch This one doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t make a mess, itÃ¢â¬â¢s free and itÃ¢â¬â¢s funny. While theyÃ¢â¬â¢re away at class sneak into their room and switch everything to the opposite side so itÃ¢â¬â¢s a perfect match. Then, when they bring it to your attention, seriously act as if theyÃ¢â¬â¢re nuts and itÃ¢â¬â¢s been that way the whole time. If you can hold your composure it will play an epic mind prank on them. #11 Early Morning Shower Prank Simply sneak into the dorm shower while theyÃ¢â¬â¢re getting ready for another day of collegiate labor and steal their towel and clothes so they will have no other option but to grab the shower curtain. However, this may not occur to them for some time. #12-Ã Shaving Cream Floor Cover the floor, completely, in fragrant shaving cream. Super cheap, and not as hard to clean up. #13 Wrapping Paper Room Grab some festive wrapping paper and thoroughly set about wrapping their entire room in it. Even if it takes 10 rolls, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s probably only $20 to do a full single dorm room. #14 Pubic Hair + Superglue Seriously, if they have a problem cleaning up their pubes, then (with gloves on) grab a bunch of the stuff and super clue it to something thatÃ¢â¬â¢s valuable enough to them that theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll get the point. #15 Wake Up in Unexpected Places If theyÃ¢â¬â¢re a heavy sleeper or utterly passed out, have them wake up in a strange place. This is so awesome when pulled off correctly. We had to boil it down to these because there are hundreds of pranks out there. But, with a little creativity you could come up with just about anything. Check out even more cruel but funny roommate pranks! How about it gang, what kinds of pranks have you played on college friends that theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll never forget?
Thursday, November 21, 2019
A close reading of a fiction - Essay Example Sensibly saying, his family and society had affected his style to evolve imaginative provocation in most of his literary works. Ã¢â¬ËThe MetamorphosisÃ¢â¬â¢ is focused at the terrific change that occurs to the protagonist Gregor Samsa, a traveling salesman. One morning he finds himself astonishingly changed into a strange large insect. His ambush was more about finding himself more hopelessly unable to continue with his sales work than mere physical change. He was the only financial support for the family and the happiness of the family depended much on his ability to work. His new look terrifies his employer who runs way at his very sight. The family now controls his motions or calls him with Ã¢â¬ËShooosÃ¢â¬â¢ rather than his name. His room has become his hiding place. He develops fears of a cockroach like being stamped by people or attacked by cats or other animals. His sister Grete, however, feeds him with milk and stale, rotten fruits or remains of edible things. He manages to remain affectionate to his family members and hides himself behind the sofa or bed whenever someone enters his room. Now his only amusement in the loneliness is looking out through the windows and crawling up on the walls and ceiling. In the mean time, the family lets out a portion to lodgers and GregorÃ¢â¬â¢s room changes into a dumping area for unwanted things. He then realizes that he was no more Gregor and that he should leave the family for their better prospects. Gregor, utterly dejected to stay longer, dies in his room. The family upon finding his corpse feels relieved of a great burden and starts planning for the future. The family improves their living standards and shifts to a smaller flat to delete the memories of Gregor. The dÃ ©nouement (The resolution of the plot of a literary work) of this work is of a mixed trend. The narration changes the denouement with the development of the story. A person loved very much by the
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Labor Relations - Case Study Example In the second instance, the teacher reportedly lied in response to certain queries while being investigated. Lying is reported in response to queries over the copying and distribution of sheets as well as in response to queries over his relationship to a member of the African American community in school. The findings of the school board concluded that Daniel W. Burrell had lied under oath and this mandated that he be removed from service immediately. The BoardÃ¢â¬â¢s position on the matter of distributing racially oriented jokes is also highly clear and the Board holds that Mr. Burrell had violated his responsibilities and associated expectations by the distribution. Moreover, Mr. Burrell was furnished with due process of law before dismissal in line with concerned laws over teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s rights. Therefore, there is little doubt that the proceedings of this case were carried out by the book in letter and spirit. A look at the relevant laws affirms such view points. Under law, a teacher may be dismissed from service for immoral conduct, incompetence, neglect of duty, substantial non compliance with school laws and fraud or misrepresentation amongst other things. Being a teacher, Mr. Burrell is supposed to serve as a beacon and as a role model to the community in general and to his students in particular. However, the distribution of racially discriminatory material is unjustifiable even if humour is speculated. Furthermore, under his freedom to teach Mr. Burrell could expose students to new streams of thought by using racial or otherwise socially compromising material but the racially centred jokes do not constitute such an intention. Therefore, the distribution of racially centred jokes through personal initiative has nothing to do with Mr. BurrellÃ¢â¬â¢s professional responsibilities. Instead, such behaviour deserves discouragement at an official level. Mr. Burrell had the
Monday, November 18, 2019
Evolution of Life in Prisons - Research Paper Example However, the male and female prisoners were kept in the same area, although housed in different dorms. The women were normally kept in attics and were subject to sexual abuse. Historical studies done by Johnson, Dobrzanska, Palla (2005), show that due to shortcomings of the Congregate System in terms of rehabilitating the prisoners, the format was discontinued in order to try out the Reformatory era of prisons. During this era, men were taught skills and educated in classes which would help them become better citizens upon leaving prison. Military drills were part of their daily training in an effort to create gentlemen out of the convicts. While women were educated in decorum and housework in preparation of what was then deemed to be the proper role of women in society. (p. 6) The 20th century saw the advent of the so called Ã¢â¬Å"Big-HouseÃ¢â¬ , a place where the punishment or work assigned to the prisoners did nothing to help redeem their soul or place in society. Instead, it w as a place where men were made to do empty jobs just to show that their spirits had been broken and that they were now submissive to those running the prison. This was the era when Ã¢â¬Å"Chain GangsÃ¢â¬ became known as the term for prisoners and they were used mostly in the government construction field. This type of prison became the norm in the 1930's. Any prisoner who found himself out of line was given Corporal Punishment. Although much stricter than a penitentiary, the Big House was seen as more lenient and effective in reforming the prisoners since they had a wider sense of freedom in the Big House set up. (p.9) In the modern times, prisons came to be known as Correctional Institutions and function far differently from their early counterparts. According to Pearson (2009) , modern prisons are actually mini communities that function by their own set of rules and regulations independent of the prison laws. Male and female prisoners now exhibit a distinct lifestyle and values system which helps them adapt to life outside of the world they once knew. (p.2) It was only 30 years ago when the penal system of America came to the realization that the old way of treating prisoners was not effective in any way due to the disconnect between the prisoners, the prison administration, and the outside world. Mark Saunders, the warden of the Southeast Correctional Institution in Ohio wrote (2006), that the modern prison system works with the prisoners in order to help them become educated, trained, and motivated to change their ways. No longer are prisons expected to simply be the holding place for societies problem members. These days, prisons are expected to impact the lives of the male and female prisoners positively. Prisoners need to adjust psychologically to their prison lives. according to psychologist Robert Morgan, PhD (2003), requires the help of prison psychologists to overcome. He explains that Ã¢â¬Å""There's a great need for these folks to receive psych ological services ...Ã¢â¬ . According to Pearson (2006), they now need to Ã¢â¬Å"learn convict values, roles, attitude, and language in order to survive the prison subcultureÃ¢â¬ (p.4) Prisoners quickly learn that in order to to evolve and survive in their new atomosphere they must abide by the 5 Elements of the Prison Code namely: 1. Don't interfere with the interests of other inmates - don't rat on others 2. Play it cool - do your own time 3. Don't whine - be a man / woman 4. Don't exploit inmates - don't break your word 5.
Friday, November 15, 2019
History and Types of Microscopes What is a microscope? There is so many little objects that human eyes cant be able to see. The microscope is a tool to see minute objects consisting of lens or combination of lenses. Due to their highly-improved lenses, we can observe high-quality images and these days this images can be transferred to computers. Todays microscopes are so advanced that they can show objects which are sized of the millionth part of a meter called micron. The science of searching small objects with microscopes is called microscopy. Microscopic means that impossible to see, without a help of a microscope, with a naked eye. History of Microscope After the glass is first made in the first century, Romans was trying to make objects to be seen bigger. The first and simple forms were called flea glasses and they were able to show 6 times bigger. The microscope is developed in Netherlands at the 1590s but its inventor is not easy to identify. Some proofs are leading to Cornelis Drebbel. But others insist that Zacharias Jansen and his father Hans were working with lenses, they combined some lenses and put them into a tube and invented the microscope. Few others believed that Galileo Galilei was the first discoverer of microscope. First microscopes were not good enough to use at researches because it can only enlarge by 9 times bigger. First, the real microscope was used by Anton van Leeuwenhoek in the late 17th century which was made by pipes, simple lens, plate and screw(Figure1). Figure 1 Unlike the others, his microscope could show objects one-millionth of a meter bigger of its sizes(270x). Others best achievement was 50x magnification. With this microscope, he saw and identified bacteria, erythrocyte, and sperm cells. He published their drawings on Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London at 1674.These drawings were forgotten until there were huge developments in science. In 1665 Van Leeuwenhoeks work was a guide to Robert Hooke and he wrote Micrographia. It is the first book that provides microscopic pictures of insects, plants etc.Ã  (Figure 2). Figure 2-Drawing of an insect by Robert Hooke After 200 years from Robert Hooke, German engineer called Carl Zeiss improved lenses of the microscope and he established a company named Zeiss. After that, he hired Ernst Abbe to the company. Abbe improved the microscopes and lenses. Types of microscopes Stereoscope Dissection microscope is used with visible light. It is used to see dissection better. It has 3-dimensional images and it has low magnification. Figure 3 earthworm captured by Stereoscope Confocal Microscope Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) plays the most significant role on imaging tiny samples in three-dimensional form. CLSM works like an optical microscope with some differences. It uses monochromatic laser light instead of visible light .CLSM has widely used from cell biology, genetics, microbiology and development biology to quantum optics, nanocrystal imaging and spectroscopy. History of Confocal Microscope Early in 1940, Hans Goldmann from Switzerland invented a slit lamp to make documentation of eye examinations. Some researchers believe it might be first confocal optical system . Marvin Minsky invented first confocal scanning microscope in 1955 and in 1957 got its patent. Figure 4: Marvin Minskys patent application that shows the principle of CLSM . By moving the stage, illumination point in focal plane could be scanned . In 1969 M. David Egger and Paul Davidovits described the first CLSM in two pages and published. Only one illumination spot generated with this point scanner. It was used for the imaging of the nerve tissue [17, 18]. In 1983 confocal microscope was first used and controlled by a computer after the publication of first work by I. J. Cox and C. Sheppard from Oxford University. Based on Oxford groups designs, first CLSM was offered from 1982 . At the Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, William Bradshaw Amos and John Graham White and colleagues invented the first confocal beam scanning microscope in the middle of 1980s.This time the illumination spot was moving but not the stage. This technique allowed faster image acquisition, four images per second . Working Principle of Confocal Microscope For getting higher intensities a laser is used. The laser light reflects from the dichroic mirror. After that it hits mirrors on motors and across the sample lasers get scanned by these mirrors. And emitted light passes through the dichroic mirror and gets focused onto pinhole. Finally, the detector measures that light. As it appears the complete image of the sample cannot be observed just one point can be observed. The photomultiplier detector is connected to a computer and one pixel at a time it builds an image . Figure 5: Principal Light Pathways in Confocal Microscopy . What is the advantage of using a confocal microscope? By scanning lots of thin parts of a sample, it is easy to build a very good three-dimensional image. Confocal microscope has better resolution horizontally and vertically. The best resolution can be obtained at 0.2 microns for horizontal and 0.5 microns for vertical . Examples There are some examples of imaging with the confocal microscope. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Figure 6: Nematode. Miami University in Oxford, Ohio . Figure 7 : Example image of confocal microscope . Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) SEM is an electron microscope that uses the focused beam of electrons to images of the sample. Electrons interact with atoms in the sample and gives information about external morphology (texture), chemical composition, and crystalline structure and orientation of materials making up the sample .A beam of electrons uses raster scan pattern which is a rectangular pattern of an image and reconstruction in the screen. Most computers use bitmap image systems to store the image . The image is created by matching the position with the perceived signal. SEM can get better than 1 nm resolution. Standard SEM microscopes are generally suitable for dry and conductive surfaces in high vacuum. Also, there are specialized machines that work under changeable conditions from low temperature to high temperature and in low vacuum. There is environmental SEM for wet conditions. McMullan presented the history of SEM . Manfred von Ardenne invented SEM in 1937. In the early 1960s, Cambridge groups marketed as Stereoscan in 1965[28, 29]. After interaction of high energized beam of electrons and outer orbit electrons of samples atoms Auger electrons which have low electrons will be formed. These electrons carry information about sample surface.After interactions, there will be electron beams which have lower energy, move to the surface of the sample and will gather there.These electrons called as secondary electrons. For imaging for SEM, mostly secondary electrons are being used. Change of secondary electrons numbers depends on the topography of surface and angle of the point where the beam hits the surface . Figure 7: Blood image by SEM . Transmission Electron Microscope High energized electrons pass through the very thin sample. After interaction of electrons, images are enlarged and focused on fluorescence screen, photographic film layer or CCD camera . In 1930 Max Knoll and Ernst Ruska invented TEM . It allows us to see smaller objects than the optical microscope. TEM is used in cancer research, virology, materials science, nanotechnology, and semiconductor. TEMs contrast depends on absorption of electrons, thickness, and composition of the sample. Complex wave interactions at higher magnifications modulate the intensity of the image with analysis of an expert for the image. The resolution limit is up to 0.2 nm for TEM. Compared to SEM, TEM has troublesome work to get the sample ready and the user must have a very good background about it . Figure 8: Example of TEM of a plant cell . Compound Light Microscopes Compound microscopes are 2-dimensional light microscopes and they are most used microscopes. Even though it has low resolution it has high magnification. Figure 9-meiosis seen by compound microscope. Figure 10-Microscope view of plant cells. Parts of Optical Microscope Figure 10 Parts of a microscope Eyepiece Lens: The lens that allows us to see through. Tubes: It helps eyepiece to connect to lenses. Arm: Holds the tube. Base: Supports the microscope at the bottom. Illuminator: Light source or a mirror that helps us to see a sample from the tube. If it is a mirror it can reflect outer light to use. Stage: This platform is used to put samples and it has clips to prevent the sample from moving. Revolving Nosepiece or Turret: This part is for holding lenses together and it can rotate to switch between lenses. Objective Lenses: These lenses are most commonly can be put three or four lenses on the microscope. They have 4,10,40 or 100 times bigger magnification. They are color coded and should build to DIN standards. Rack Stop: It is used to protect the objective lens from breaking. DIN Standards The real image is formed 160mm away from the objective lens. Parfocal distance should be 45 mm. Eyepiece lens should be 170mm. Working Principle of Optical Microscope Figure 11  As shown in Figure 9 light starts its journey from illuminator and with a mirror it reaches to sample. Then it goes to prism through objective lenses. It reflects from the prism and comes to eye in the tube.Ã When light passes through the objective lens makes the image of sample bigger and focuses 160 mm inside the tube and then ocular lenses magnifies the image of sample 25cm away from the eye. This image is a virtual image of the sample (Figure 10). Typical microscopes have four different objective lenses. Scanning (5x), low power(10x), medium power (20x) and high power lenses (40x). We can easily calculate the magnifying of the microscope with multiplying objective lens and ocular lens. For example, after image magnified by objective lenses 40 times of original image of the sample, will magnify second time 20 times bigger by ocular lenses. So, our eye can see 4020=800 times bigger image of an original image of the sample. Figure 12  Differences Between Electron and Light Microscope Light microscopes techniques are simple but for electron microscope high-level technical skill needed. Preparation time of the sample is few minutes to few hours for light microscopes but several days for electron microscopes. Live or dead samples can be seen in light microscopes but for electron microscopes only dead and dried samples can be seen. Light microscopes have low resolution than electron microscope and the resolution limit for the light microscope is 200 nm but for SEM 1nm and for TEM 0.2 nm. Light rays are used to illuminate for light microscope but for electron microscope electrons are being used. Lenses are made of glass for light microscope but for electron microscope all lenses are electromagnets. Magnification of light microscope is 500x to 1500x but for EM 160,000x and photographic magnification is 1000,000x or more. Light microscopes are cheap but electron microscopes are expensive . Calculation of Resolution If we want to get good details of very small objects like cells, we need to increase the resolution. It can be described as to see different between two small and very near objects. It can be affected of the wavelength of light and power of lenses. Mathematical formula of separating two different small objects which have the smallest distance (dmin); Dmin = 1.22 x wavelength / N.A. objective + N.A. condenser Different then the theoretical power, in practice samples quality affects its resolving power. Definition of Numerical Aperture(N.A.) is a value of objectives defined by Abbe. Numerical Aperture (NA)=n-sin(Ã µ) or n-sin(Ã ±) Figure 13 Numerical Aperture As shown in Figure 11 light waves go through a sample to the objective lens. But when it comes to practice it is nearly impossible to get the value of aperture above 0.95 with dry objective lenses. When the light cones get the bigger degree of Ã ± starts to increase from 7 to 60 and N.A. increases from 0.12 to 0.87. In todays world, it is possible to use alternative media to make images in water (refractive index = 1.33), glycerin (refractive index = 1.47), and immersion oil (refractive index = 1.51) by the objective lens. We can clearly see Figure 12 and Table 1; highly corrected objectives have bigger N.A. Figure 14 Table 1 Numerical Aperture versus Optical Correction There is a limit of resolution in optical microscopes as shown below; Let N.A. be 1.4 and resolution is different for lights wavelength. A minimum distance of two points of the image is 0.61 Ã »/N.A. As we know visible light wavelength is between 400-700 nm. There will be no resolution between two objects if distance is 1/3 Ã ». If we choose green light Ã » = 500nm and r=0.61 x 500nm / 1.4 =218 nm. If we choose blue light Ã » = 400nm and r=0.61 x 400nm / 1.4 =174 nm. If we choose green light Ã » = 700nm and r=0.61 x 700nm / 1.4 =305 nm. Diffraction Limit of Electron Microscope Electron microscope has diffraction limit and it is 1nm for SEM, 0.3nm for TEM. This limit occurs because of wave nature of electrons. Electrons has a phenomenon called wave-particle duality. Particle of matter (incident electron) can be explained as wave. We can assimilate to sound or water waves. Louis de Broglie says that the wavelength of a particle can be calculated as following formula: Ã »=h/p Ã »: wavelength of a particle h: Plancks constant (62610-34) p: momentum of a particle Momentum is the product of mass and the velocity of a particle and equation can be written as; Ã »= h / mv Accelerating voltage determines the velocity of the electrons we can use following formula; eV = mv2/2 We can calculate the velocity of electrons by; Due to these formulae, we can show the wavelength of propagating electrons at a given accelerating voltage; Since the mass of an electron is 9.1 x 10-31 kg and e = 1.6 x 10-19; So, the wavelength of electrons is 3.88pm when the microscope is operating at 100 keV, 2.74 pm at 200 keV, and 2.24 pm at 300 keV. We know electrons in an electron microscope reach %70 of speed of the light wit accelerating voltage of 200 keV, there are effects which are significant length contraction, time dilation, and an increase in mass. By these changes; c: speed of the light (299 792 458 mps) So, wavelength of an electron at 100 keV, 200 keV, 300 keV in electron microscopes is 3.70 pm ,2.51 pm, and 1.96 pm, respectively . Another reason for limitation for TEM is, sample transparency has to be proper for electron transparency. To be more precise its thickness has to be 100nm or less. Electrons can be deflected in magnetic fields by the Lorentz force. This problem may make crystal structure determination virtually impossible [48, 49]. Diffraction Limit of Optical Microscope There is a limit for imaging with an optical microscope called Abbe diffraction limit. This limit is Ã »/2(Ã » is imaging radiations free-space wavelength) . Modern works show us that this limit can be passed and can make optical microscopes lenses to have a high resolution. But with diffraction limit even though the lens is corrected there will be blur image of the point. This called Airy disk or diffraction. British mathematician Lord George Biddel Airy has found it. We can see its cross section and appearance below (Figure 13). Figure 15 Diameter of the disk is; Bdiff =2.44 Ã » (f/#) With f/# limitation can be controlled and wavelength of the light. The maximum resolving power of the lens is determined by this limitation. If we want to calculate diffraction limit we can use following formula; If we reach the limit lens will become unable to resolve greater frequencies. In theory, if the contrast is %0 the diffraction limit will appear to be as shown in Table 2 at different f/#s for 0.520 Ã ¼m light as known as green light. Table 2 Different Ways to Break Resolution Limit of Optical Microscope There are several ways to break resolution limit of optical microscope. To do that researchers change lenses or different parts of microscopes. Here are some examples: By employing stimulated emission to inhibit the fluorescence process in the outer regions of the excitation point-spread function. By using laterally structured illumination in a wide-field, non-confocal microscope(This method claims that spatially structured excitation light illuminates the sample) . By improving the lenses with ZrO2. Synthesis of ZrO2 Nanoparticles Zirconium(IV) isopropoxideÃ¢Ëâ2-propanol complex (5.6 g) and anhydrous benzyl alcohol (55mL) were charged into a 100 mL Teflon-lined autoclave. This Teflon-lined autoclave was sealed and placed into an oven at 240 Ã °C for 4 days and then cooled to obtain a white turbid suspension. . Figure 16. Figure 16 is a schematic of hSIL integrated with an Olympus optical microscope for super-resolution imaging of the underlying nanopattern. The hSIL collects near-field information on the nanopattern and forms a virtual image that can be captured by the objective lens. Figure 17 -Super-resolution optical imaging through hSIL on 45 nm gaps. SEM images of the chip with periodic structures of 50 nm gaps (a) and the gold-coated chip with 45 nm gaps (b). (c, d) Optical images of the chip with 50 nm gaps under white and filtered blue light (Ã »max Ã¢â°Ë 470 nm) without SILs. (e1, e2) Optical images of the chip with hSIL of h/d = 0.8 (d = 11.5 Ã ¼m). (f1, f2) Optical images of the gold-coated chips through SIL of h/d = 0.78 (d = 10.5 Ã ¼m) and (g1, g2) with hSIL of higher h/d = 0.84 (d = 11.3 Ã ¼m). Optical images of e1Ã¢Ëâg1 and e2Ã¢Ëâg2 were taken under white light and filtered blue light, respectively. The corresponding image magnification factors of e2, f2, and g2 are 3.1, 2.9, and 3.6. The scale bars for e1Ã¢Ëâg2 are the same as that of c. 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